Information of Kidney Stones
Manifestations of Stones
As stones grow on the surfaces of the renal papillae or within the collecting system, they need not produce symptoms. Asymptomatic stones may be discovered during the course of radiographic studies undertaken for unrelated reasons. Stones rank, along with benign and malignant neoplasms and renal cysts, among the common causes of isolated hematuria. Stones become symptomatic when they enter the ureter or occlude the ureteropelvic junction, causing pain and obstruction.
A stone can traverse the ureter without symptoms, but passage usually produces pain and bleeding. The pain begins gradually, usually in the flank, but increases over the next 20–60 min to become so severe that narcotic drugs may be needed for its control. The pain may remain in the flank or spread downward and anteriorly toward the ipsilateral loin, testis, or vulva. A stone in the portion of the ureter within the bladder wall causes frequency, urgency, and dysuria that may be confused with urinary tract infection. The vast majority of ureteral stones <0.5 cm in diameter will pass spontaneously.
It has been standard practice to diagnose acute renal colic by intravenous pyelography; however, helical CT scan without radiocontrast enhancement is now the preferred procedure. The advantages of CT include detection of uric acid stones in addition to the traditional radiopaque stones, no exposure to the risk of radiocontrast agents, and possible diagnosis of other causes of abdominal pain in a patient suspected of having renal colic from stones. Ultrasound is not as sensitive as CT in detecting renal or ureteral stones. Standard abdominal x-rays may be used to monitor patients for formation and growth of kidney stones, as they are less expensive and provide less radiation exposure than CT scans. Calcium, cystine, and struvite stones are all radiopaque on standard x-rays, whereas uric acid stones are radiolucent.
When the stone size is small, our medicine is likely to help in the passage of stone as well as in relieving the agonizing pain caused by the same.